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Received: June 28, 2022 / Revised: August 24, 2022 / Accepted: August 27, 2022 / Published: August 31, 2022
The HBIM (Historic Building Information Modeling) methodology has revolutionized the entire panorama of heritage documentation since 2009. At the same time, the possibility of creating and managing HBIM projects using open source solutions has opened up new avenues of research in 2016. Different reasons may lead to the use of free and open source software (FOSS), but the availability of a custom project should be the main goal. After six years of open source HBIM research, this work will examine the current landscape of planning and operational programs in historical architecture information models built with FOSS solutions. Different aspects will be analyzed, from the creation of open source software to parametric modeling and from semantic sizing to data sharing and cloud availability. The advantages and disadvantages of open source protocols will then be highlighted. Finally, the next updates, future scenarios and developments of the open source HBIM will be appreciated.
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The incredible development of Historic Building Information Modeling (HBIM) since 2009 [1, 2, 3] has not only changed the methodological approach, but also influenced the documentation and monitoring of cultural heritage properties. In the panorama of cultural heritage and human sciences, the typology of information and the fragmentation of data have affected knowledge sharing and collaboration stages. The HBIM method has proven to be a turning point in cultural heritage documentation, connecting paper and digital data.
Over the years, the reliability of open source software for collecting semantic data from HBIM projects has been demonstrated by various studies. These studies refer to proposed solutions for the creation of open databases (spatial and relational) for BIM [4, 5, 6] as well as on complete and functional projects [7, 8, 9]. These analyzes demonstrated the importance of adapting instruments to research and not the other way around, an objective that can be achieved by relying on open source solutions.
Why open source protocols are important for documenting existing assets: The adoption of open source solutions can be driven by various reasons, e.g. necessity, morality or advantages. The first reason may be due to financial problems, an underappreciated but relevant aspect. Conducting research often means using specific methods and technologies and, therefore, facing significant financial efforts from public and private agencies. Additionally, the necessity group may include the need to create a custom solution for specific projects.
Ethical reasons may lead to using open source software. Various studies have been carried out in the cultural heritage panorama according to the ethical thinking of the free and open software movement, entirely based on the FOSS ecosystem and the systems and tools that always guarantee open data to society.
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The latter, the adoption of FOSS instruments, may be due to their advantages and technical values. In fact, software such as Blender, MicMac and Quantum GIS (QGis) are well-known and very reliable software for 3D modeling, photogrammetry and spatial analysis. Additionally, the advantages and benefits of using open source solutions include data availability, transparency, and customization options. Using open source solutions can also be seen as a real challenge, such as tackling an entire project using open source solutions and avoiding proprietary computer programs.
Within an HBIM project, the 3D data management steps are carried out after the measurement acquisitions, e.g. from point cloud management to parametric modeling (scanning to BIM). These important macros and sub-phases require specific tools and software to process metric data in the best possible way. Modelers and planners often rely on multiple applications and systems to process metric and semantic data of heritage elements .
Although the entire scanning to BIM process can hardly be designed and executed via open source solutions, the creation and management of functional HBIM platforms is possible by leveraging FreeCAD software . In addition, the data exchange and collaboration phases are carried out by various open cloud-based applications.
The design of HBIM projects via open source solutions is at the center of this work. Different aspects will be analyzed, from the creation of a personalized platform for parametric modeling and from the inclusion of semantic information to the exchange and accessibility of data via cloud and web applications. This manuscript, through the review of operational programs, will analyze each planning phase related to HBIM carried out using open source instruments. Indeed, this work will highlight the possibilities of design, modeling and data exchange of platforms exclusively via open source solutions. Indeed, the main objective of this review is to demonstrate that open source software and instruments can manage the entirety of HBIM workflows. This review will then address the question of the reliability of FOSS instruments for documenting and disseminating HBIM models and associated data.
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The importance of open source software and code lies in its flexibility and customization. These features can play a fundamental role in HBIM workflows because there is no predetermined process for each design phase. In addition, cultural heritage assets require significant developments, particularly in terms of parametric modeling and stored information. Open source software, libraries, and packages could adapt their structure and codes to overcome modeling limitations, and the inclusion of historical data and FOSS instruments can be of equal value to most traditional BIM software. For this reason, this review aims to raise awareness of the value and reliability of open source instruments for HBIM. These projects, carried out through open solutions, concern operational platforms where historical documentation is maintained and managed.
The result of six years of research, this article will examine the real-world scenario of open source HBIM solutions, analyze the proposed solutions and their advantages and disadvantages. For this reason, previous projects (designed with FOSS tools) will be reviewed and further updates and developments of the open source HBIM will be evaluated.
Reviewing and analyzing previous research on FOSS HBIM is fundamental to better understanding the behavior and reliability of open instruments on historical information patterns. Within these projects, open source software, libraries and packages have been adapted to different workflows (especially with regard to the customization and modeling phase of the platform).
The current panorama related to open source HBIM consists of three main types of research and projects (related to historical/archaeological buildings and platform development): Staffarda Dining Hall (CN, Italy); Domus Regia inside the Roman Forum (Rome, Italy). The ARK-BIM project (Figure 1). Additionally, another ongoing project is focused on the HBIM documentation of another important building of the Roman Forum in Rome, the Giacomo Boni Museum (the first museum/Wunderkammer of the Roman Forum remains). This project will be described in future articles.
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The first project (a 2016-2020 PhD program) is related to the integration of metric and stratigraphic information into a custom HBIM platform [8, 9]. The refectory of the medieval abbey of Staffarda (CN, Italy) was analyzed using the following different studies: metric acquisitions by total station, TLS and photogrammetric approach. stratigraphic study of walls and masonry. In fact, the objective was twofold: to understand the evolution of the refectory using stratigraphic analysis and HBIM documentation of the refectory and its stratigraphy. The HBIM design was carried out using the open source software FreeCAD. The platform has been adapted in its libraries, packages and plugins to adapt it to the context of the project. The modeling phase was carried out using the NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational Basis Spline) method within the Rhinoceros environment. The resulting surfaces were then configured in FreeCAD using ad hoc plugins and instruments. The resulting HBIM platform is designed to include historical information in appropriate smart containers (Figure 2). Specific queries were then performed via SQL language. Thus, the 3D and semantic data of the dining room were managed within the HBIM platform to ensure the review and updating of the studies.
The second project (2021) concerns the HBIM documentation of an archaeological site and its hypothetical reconstruction: Domus Regia (Sacraria Martis)
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