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Protocols Of The Learned Elders Of Zion
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The Protocols Of The Learned Elders Of Zion
Protocols of the Elders of Zion, a fraudulent document that mainly served as a pretext and reason for anti-Semitism at the beginning of the 20th century. The document is said to be a record of a series of 24 (in other versions: 27) meetings held in Basel, Switzerland, in 1897, at the time of the First Zionist Congress. There it was said that Jews and Freemasons had made a plan to destroy Christian civilization and establish a world state under their joint rule. Liberalism and socialism would be the means of undermining Christianity; if the subversion failed, all the capitals of Europe would be sabotaged.
(“Banner”) and later (1905) as an appendix to a religious tract by Serge Nilus, a tsarist official. They were translated into German, French, English and other European languages and soon became a classic of anti-Semitic literature. In the private journal of Henry Ford from the United States:
(London), which bore a clear resemblance to a satire on Napoleon III by the French lawyer Maurice Joly, published in 1864 and entitled
(“Dialogue in Hell between Machiavelli and Montesquieu”). A subsequent study, mainly by Russian historian Vladimir Burtsev, found that the
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Were destroyed forgeries by Russian secret police officials from Joly’s satire, a fantasy novel (cover of the first edition of the book The Great Within the Minuscule and Antichrist, in which the protocols were included as an appendix).
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (Russian: Протоколы сионских мудрецов), or the Protocols of the Meetings of the Learned Elders of Zion (Протоколы собранией учены учены мусыди) for a large part of the Jewish dominion, for a large part of e previous world domination, sources , first published in imperial Russia in 1903, translated into several languages and distributed internationally in the early 20th century, played an important role in popularizing the belief in an international Jewish conspiracy.
In early 1933, some German teachers had distillations of the work ordered, as if they were facts, by German schoolchildren throughout Nazi Germany.
Although the text was exposed as fraudulent in 1921 by the British newspaper The Times and in 1924 by the German newspaper Frankfurter Zeitung. Today, the text is still widely available in numerous languages, in print and on the Internet, and is still revered by anti-Semites. groups as guin document. It has been described as “probably the most influential anti-Semitic work ever written” since it emerged from Russia shortly before the First World War.
Protocols Of The Learned Elders Of Zion (pb) (2011)
The protocols are a fabricated document that claims to be factual. Textual material shows that such a thing could not have happened before 1901: the document refers, for example, to the murders of Umberto I († 1900) and William McKinley, as if those events were intentional.
The title of Sergei Nilus’s first widespread edition contains the dates “1902-1903”, and it is likely that the document was written in Russia at that time.
Cesare G. De Michelis states that it was created in the months after a Russian Zionist Congress in September 1902, and that it was originally a parody of Jewish idealism, intended for internal circulation among antisemites, until it was decided to clean it up. and publish. as if it were real. The contradictions in various testimonies show that those involved – including the original editor of the text, Pavel Krusjevan – deliberately hid the origin of the text and lied about it in the decades that followed.
If the location of the forgery in Russia between 1902 and 1903 is correct, it was written at the beginning of a series of anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire in which thousands of Jews were killed or fled the country. Many of the people De Michelis suspected of being involved in the forgery were directly responsible for inciting the pogroms.
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At the end of the 18th century, after the Partitions of Poland, the Russian Empire captured the world’s largest Jewish population. Jews lived in shtetls in the west of the empire, in the Settlemt region, and until the 1840s local Jewish affairs were organized by the qahal, the semi-autonomous local Jewish government, also for the purpose of taxation and conscription in Russian rich . military After the rise of liberalism in Europe and under the intelligentsia in Russia, the tsarist civil service hardened in its reactionary policy, maintaining Tsar Nicholas I’s slogan of orthodoxy, autocracy and nationality, excluding non-orthodox and non-Russian subjects , including Jews, Catholics and Protestants were seen as a subversive fifth column that had to be forcibly converted and assimilated; but all Jews, such as the composer Maximilian Steinberg, who tried to assimilate by converting to Orthodoxy, were still regarded with suspicion as possible “infiltrators” who were thought to be trying to “take over society”, while Jews who remained attached to their traditional religion and culture were excluded. unwanted. Alice.
There was opposition to the Jews in Russian society for the reasons mentioned above, but the idea of an international Jewish conspiracy in the style of the Protocols for World Domination was conceived in the 1860s. Jacob Brafman, a Lithuanian Jew from Minsk, had a falling out with agents of the local qahal and then converted to the Russian Orthodox Church and wrote polemics against the Talmud and the qahal.
Brafman stated in his books The Local and Universal Jewish Brotherhoods (1868) and The Book of the Kahal (1869), published in Vilna, that the Qahal continued to exist in secret and that its main purpose was to protect the Orthodox Christian entrepreneurs who’ t undermine them. , by taking over their property and eventually seizing political power. He also claimed that it was an international conspiratorial network, under the central control of the Alliance Israélite Universelle, based in Paris and led by Adolphe Crémieux, a prominent Freemason.
The impact of Brafman’s work gained an international dimension when it was translated into English, French, German and other languages. The image of the “qahal” as a secret Jewish shadow government operating as a state within a state was picked up in Russia by anti-Jewish publications and was taken seriously by some Russian officials such as P.A. Cherevin and Nikolai Pavlovich Ignatyev, who in the 1880s urged the governors-general of the provinces to search for the alleged qahal. It was around the time of Narodnaya Volya’s nihilistic assassination of Tsar Alexander II of Russia by bombing and subsequent pogroms. In France it was translated in 1925 by Monseigneur Ernest Jouin, who later supported the protocols. In 1928, Siegfried Passarge, a far-right geographer who later supported the Nazis, translated it into German.
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In addition to Brafman, there were other early writings that postulated a concept similar to the protocols. This includes The Conquest of the World by the Jews (1878),
Published in Basel and written by Osman Bey (born Frederick van Milling). Milling was a British subject and the son of the Greek doctor Julius Michael Milling, but he served as an officer in the army of the Ottoman Empire, where he was born. He converted to Islam, but later became a Russian Orthodox Christian. Bey’s work was followed by Hippolytus Lutostansky’s Talmud and the Jews (1879), which claimed that the Jews wanted to divide Russia among themselves.
The source material for the forgery consisted of Dialogue aux vers tre Machiavel et Montesquieu (Dialogue in Hell between Machiavelli and Montesquieu), a political satire from 1864 by Maurice Joly;
And a chapter from Biarritz, a novel from 1868 by the German anti-Semitic writer Hermann Goedsche, which was translated into Russian in 1872.
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The Protocols are one of the most famous and discussed examples of literary forgery, with analysis and proof of their fraudulent origins dating back to 1921.
The text contains generalizations, truths and clichés about how we can take over the world: take control of the media and financial institutions, change the traditional social order, etc. It does not contain specific details.
Were plagiarized from Joly’s political satire Dialogue in Hell between Machiavelli and Montesquieu. This book was a thinly veiled attack on the political ambitions of Napoleon III, who, suppressed by the Gentile character of Machiavelli,
Plans to rule the world. Joly, a republican who later served in the Paris Commune, was sentenced to fifteen months as a direct result of the publication of his book.
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Umberto Eco believed that Dialogue in Hell was partially plagiarized from a novel by Eugène Sue, Les Mystères du Peuple (1849-56).
Joly’s identifiable sentences make up 4% of the first half of the first edition and 12% of the second half; Later editions, including most translations, contain longer quotations from Joly.
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